Paulette Senior Chair Paulette Senior is the President and CEO of the Canadian Women's Foundation, Canada's public foundation for women and girls. The Foundation is one of the 10 largest women's foundations in the world, investing in over 1,400 community programs across Canada since 1991. Ms. Senior is recognized as one of the most respected and vocal women leaders in the country, capturing significant attention at home and abroad as an advocate for women and girls. She has dedicated her career to helping to build a safe and equal society where women and girls can live free from violence, poverty, and homelessness, and receive the support they need to become leaders in their lives and communities.
Ms. Senior brings a wealth of grassroots experience to her role as CEO, having spent years on the frontlines of social and community development work. Before joining the Canadian Women's Foundation, Ms. Senior was the CEO of YWCA Canada—the oldest and largest multi-service women's organization in the country—for 10 years. She has led, managed, and operated shelters, employment programs and housing services, where she supported women, children, and youth in some of Toronto's most economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. She has worked at Yellow Brick House, YWCA Toronto, Macaulay Child Development Centre, Lawrence Heights Community Health Centre, and Central Neighbourhood House. She has also held numerous senior volunteer roles and is currently Chair of Women's College Hospital, Canada's leading academic ambulatory hospital in women's health.
Throughout her career, Ms. Senior has been a strong advocate at local, provincial, and federal levels on matters pertinent to women and girls, youth, immigrants, poverty, housing, violence against women, social justice, and anti-oppression. She is a graduate of York University and has received numerous awards including the African Canadian Achievement Award, the Black Women Civic Engagement Award, the MicroSkills Margot Franssen Leadership Award, and a Woman of Influence citation.
Wendy Cukier Vice-Chair Wendy Cukier is the Vice-President Research and Innovation at Ryerson University and previously was the Associate Dean of the Ted Rogers School of Management.
Cukier is a professor in Information Technology Management and is recognized as one of Canada's leading authorities on emerging technologies. She has over 20 years of experience as a consultant to industry and government.
Cukier began her career as Executive Director of the Northeastern Ontario Telehealth Network and has been extensively involved in the health care sector throughout her career. As well, she has experience working on a broad range of community based programs for which she has received numerous awards including the Canadian Public Health Association's Award of Merit, YWCA Women of Distinction and Honorary Doctorates in Medicine, Nursing and Dentristy and Law.
Cukier holds a PhD in Management Science from York University and both an MBA and MA from the University of Toronto. She was named one of the "100 Alumni who shaped the Century" by the University of Toronto and received the Governor General's Meritorious Service Cross, one of Canada's highest Civilian Honors.
In addition to joining the Women's College Hospital Board of Directors, Cukier sits on the Expert Panel of the Information Communications Technology Council and is a judge with the Canadian Information Productivity Awards. She is also the founder of the Diversity Institute and has worked on a range of projects aimed at increasing the participation of underrepresented groups in organizations.
For more information on Wendy Cukier and Research at Ryerson, please click here.
Hania Amad Hania has over 15 years of experience building, leading and revitalizing internal programs and corporate divisions for leaders in the IT, aerospace and engineering sectors. She holds a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (Computer Option) from McGill University and a Masters in Business Administration from Western University Richard Ivey School of Business.
Hania is currently the Director of Process Management at CIBC, supporting the Enterprise Architecture and Information Security team. Hania’s experience included consulting and extensive work on the International Space Station (ISS), low-orbit satellites, process management and software/hardware development for IT/telecom markets. She built the new Enterprise Quality office for Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). Within 2 years, she set new development and software standards worldwide, established a new culture of quality enterprise wide, and reversed quality issues that were placing this $6B business at risk.
In addition to sitting on the WCH board, Hania sits on the York Regional Police Victim Services (Ministry of Attorney General) and Registered Insurance Brokerage Ontario (Ministry of Finance) – Complaints and Discipline Committees.
In 2009, as a volunteer, Hania joined a task force mandated with proposing reforms to the Family Law Act. Coming from a region of the world crippled by conflict, paralyzed by intransigence and filled with human suffering, Hania made a commitment to create bridges between opposing sides. Hania is currently a very active participant in a group entitled “Together in Hope”, co-founded by Arab and Jewish women. The group aims, through dialogue, to address such issues as the Law of Return, and Nationality Law as they relate to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and how can both sides work together to reduce these tensions. Hania is also engaged in founding an exciting and related new initiative. Again, Jewish and Arab women are coming together to form a charitable organization called “Mothers and Daughters for Peace in the Middle East”. The goal will be to relieve human suffering by empowering women and children, through education, training and partnerships to become financially self-sufficient and leaders who will be instrumental in taking the region into a peaceful future.
Viola Antao Dr. Antao received her medical degree at the University of Toronto in 1999. She completed her Family Medicine residency training at St. Michaels Hospital in 2001, and a Women’s Health Fellowship at Women’s College Hospital in 2002. She is an Associate Professor and Director of Faculty Development in the Department of Family & Community Medicine at the University Of Toronto.
Dr. Antao practices Family Medicine in the Women’s College Family Practice Health Centre. She participates in teaching clerks, residents, elective students and fellows. She is a member of the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s Working Group on Faculty Development. Her research interests are in inter-professional education, education scholarship, leadership and faculty development.
Dr. Antao completed the NEAL Program in 2015. She is the recipient of the Education Innovation Award, Faculty of Medicine, Women’s College Hospital and the Jamie Meuser Award for Excellence in Leadership and Professional Development, Department of Family and Community Medicine.
Karen Bell Karen Bell has more than 20 years experience as a senior executive specializing in Human Resources, Labour and Workplace-related fields. As a Talent and Organizational Development Strategist she works with organizations to create innovative Talent Management and Diversity strategic Plans, including but not limited to Acquisition, On-Boarding, Engagement, Retention, Management and Leadership Development.
Prior to her position at Pitney Bowes of Canada, Bell lead the human resources departments in well known U.S. based corporations as and through her strong Leadership her Canadian team has been recognized for its efforts in the successful branding of Pitney Bowes Canada as a Diversity and Inclusion Employer. Their programs and initiative have been recognized both externally (RBC Skilled Immigrants Award) and internally (PB Impact Award) and recognized as a Top 90 Employer in the Toronto area.
In addition to joining the WCH Board of Directors, Bell is an active member in her community, has been involved in philanthropic initiatives and has sat on various committees of non-profit organizations such as Social Planning Toronto, United Way, the Harlem YMCA, National Black MBA Association and HRPA – Toronto Chapters.
Tammy Brown Tammy is a Partner in KPMG’s Audit practice in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). She has over 20 years of audit experience, primarily with public companies. In addition to her technical and client service abilities, Tammy is known for her significant interest and contributions within HR from coaching and mentoring throughout her career to taking leadership roles in the development of others and in diversity and inclusion within KPMG. She is a band member of the Shawanaga First Nation. As a member of the Diversity and Inclusion executive committee, Tammy has represented the aboriginal community and continues to develop connections and seek opportunities to support and include these communities in our activities. She has also had significant involvement with health charities through her roles as a director and past chair of the board of directors at Ovarian Cancer Canada.
Her clients have consistently commented that they are very appreciative of her style and reasonable approach to working with them through difficult issues. She has a proven track record for proactively addressing KPMG clients’ accounting, audit, securities and business issues.
Tammy has served in leadership positions at KPMG in the areas of recruiting, training and human resources throughout her career. She is currently the HR Partner for the GTA Audit practice, is a member of the GTA audit leadership team and is a member of the Diversity and Inclusion partner executive committee.
V. Ann Davis After a 37 year career at KPMG LLP in Canada, Ann Davis retired from KPMG on March 31, 2013. Ann has been a partner in the audit practice for over 25 years with specialization in the financial services sector. Ann has provided audit and audit related services to some of the firm's largest clients with extensive experience with financial institutions.
Ann has significant expertise in complex accounting areas under Canadian and US GAAP and IFRS. She has a sound knowledge of many of the regulatory and internal control issues facing financial institutions having advised clients on such matters. Her experience also includes securities matters in Canada and the US.
She has served as the lead audit engagement partner for some of the firm’s largest financial services clients including The Bank of Nova Scotia and Bank of Montreal. She has also led the financial services audit practice in the Greater Toronto Area and served as National Industry Leader for KPMG’s financial services practice.
Ann is active on several boards, including serving as a director and chair of the audit committees of Callidus Capital Corporation and the Canada Guaranty Mortgage Insurance Company.
Ann’s tenure with Women’s College Hospital Foundation started in 2008 as a key volunteer on the leadership gifts team for the redevelopment campaign. Ann has served on the Foundation Board of Directors since 2013 as vice-chair and member of the Development Committee, the Executive Committee and the President & CEO Search Committee. She is a firm believer in Women’s College Hospital and its leadership role not only in women’s health and research, but also health systems and innovation.
Carol Derk Carol Derkis a partner with the law firm Borden Ladner Gervais LLP in the Toronto office. Derk received her law degree from the University of Toronto, along with a Master of Arts from the University of Toronto and a Bachelor of Arts (Honours) from the University of Alberta where she majored in Music History.
Derk practices in the area of securities law, specializing in investment management funds and derivatives. Derk is the National Leader of the firm's Derivatives Group and the firm's Structured Products Group, a sub-group of the Investment Management Group.
In addition to joining the WCH Hospital Board of Directors, Derk is also a member of the Canadian Bar Association and the Canadian ETF Association and is a regular speaker at seminars and conferences on derivatives and investment fund issues.
For more information on Carol Derk please click here.
Marilyn Emery President and CEO, Women's College Hospital For more than two decades, Marilyn Emery has produced outstanding results for some of Ontario's leading health-care organizations. Since 2007, Emery has been guiding Women’s College Hospital through some of the most innovative and exciting changes in its 100-year history: its evolution into Canada's pre-eminent academic ambulatory hospital dedicated to women's health. That means delivering a revolutionary model of care designed to keep people out of hospital. This bold vision includes not only creating a new state-of-the-art hospital through a $425-million redevelopment project, but also recreating the hospital's public identity through a pioneering rebranding campaign.
Her career-long record of leadership and innovation in health-care organizations has garnered national recognition. Emery has twice been honoured as one of Canada's Most Powerful Women: Top 100 - in the inaugural year of the award in 2003, and again in 2010.
As CEO of the Central East Local Health Integration Network, Emery led the planning, co-ordination and integration of health-care services reaching 1.4 million people. At St. Joseph's Health Centre, she not only transformed the hospital's financial and business performance, but also transformed the patient experience, attaining the greatest improvement in patient satisfaction ever achieved by an Ontario hospital. As president and CEO of Markham Stouffville Hospital, Emery oversaw the construction of a new 220-bed community hospital - on time and under budget.
Emery's leadership, courage and pioneering spirit have made her a popular and inspirational guest speaker and lecturer. She holds a Master of Science in Nursing Education from the University of Western Ontario.
Ani Hotoyan-Joly Ani Hotoyan-Joly is a Chartered Professional Accountant and a Chartered Accountant with 30 years of business experience. She holds a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the University of Toronto and the ICD.D designation from The Institute of Corporate Directors and University of Toronto Rotman School of Management
Currently, Ani is the Chief Financial Officer and Corporate Secretary of Coventree Inc. Prior positions include Vice President & Chief Financial Officer of Swiss Reinsurance Company Canada and Vice President, Finance of Zurich Canada.
Ani was the Chair of the Board of Trustees of A.R.S. Armenian Private School from 2012 to 2015 and is currently the Chair of the School’s Development Foundation. From 2012 to 2015, Ani was also a member of the Board of Directors of International Women’s Forum Canada and served as its Treasurer.
In September 2016, she was elected as a member of the Board of Directors of Armenian Relief Society “Roubina” Chapter (Toronto) and in October 2016, she became a member of the Board of Directors of Women’s College Hospital.
Ani is a Board Member of Echelon Financial Holdings Inc. (EFH.TO) and is a member of the Audit & Risk Committee. She also chairs the Governance Committee which is responsible for the Corporate Governance, Nominations and Human Resources mandates. Ani is also a member of the Board of Directors of Insurance Company of PEI and is the chair of its Audit & Risk Committee.
Ani likes to spend time with her family and friends and has 2 sons, Christopher and Stephen. She loves to travel, read and volunteer.
Michelle Khalili Michelle Khalili is a Managing Director at CIBC Capital Markets in the Investment Banking division. She is a member of the Private Capital team, focused on coverage of private pools of capital, and is also a member of the Diversity and Inclusion Advisory Committee. Before rejoining CIBC in 2016, Michelle spent 4 years at Goldman Sachs as Head of Equity Capital Markets – Canada and was a member of Goldman Sachs Canada's Board of Directors. Prior to that, Michelle spent 12 years in the Equity Capital Markets group at CIBC, working on the origination and execution of equity financings in Canada.
Michelle is currently a member of the Board of Directors for the Women’s College Hospital, and is a member of their Quality & Academic Committee. Michelle is also a member of the Board of Directors for the Ontario Brain Institute and is on the Audit and Finance Committee. Michelle is also Chair of the 100 Women in Hedge Funds Committee in Canada, a global organization of more than 15,000 professional women. Michelle also served as Vice Chair and Board member of the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada, and as a member of its Human Resources and Pension Committee.
Michelle has also been involved in a number of community initiatives, including the Canadian Women's Foundation Girls Growth Fund, the Royal Ontario Museum – Fact or Fiction Committee and the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation Run for the Cure. She was recognized with an Industry Award for Leadership by Women in Capital Markets, and has received the WCM Executive Coaching Award.
Michelle earned a BComm from the University of Toronto and qualified for Chartered Accountant and Chartered Financial Analyst designations.
Kyle Kirkham Dr. Kyle Kirkham received his medical degree from the University of British Columbia in 2006. He subsequently trained as an Anesthesiologist at the University of Toronto and obtained a Fellowship in Regional Anesthesia at Toronto Western Hospital. He is a Lecturer at the University of Toronto in the Faculty of Medicine. Dr. Kirkham’s clinical focus is preventing pain and optimizing less invasive approaches to anesthesia and surgery, as a tool for helping patients leave hospital earlier and with improved recoveries. He is the director of the Anesthesia Preadmission Clinic at Women’s College Hospital where patients are counselled and prepared for their upcoming surgeries.
Dr. Kirkham is an educator with the University of Toronto and is the site coordinator for the U of T postgraduate residency training program at both Women’s College and Toronto Western Hospitals. He is an instructor for numerous U of T medical school courses and teaches locally and internationally for practicing anesthesiologists who are learning regional anesthesia. He has been recognized with prestigious hospital and university level teaching awards for these contributions.
His research focus examines the preparation that patients receive for outpatient surgery and finds ways to ensure that patients receive the testing they need while supporting a sustainable and evidence based health care system. As President of the WCH MDMSA he is a representative for the Hospital’s physicians who are proud to provide care at Women’s College Hospital.
Sheila Laredo Dr. Sheila Laredo received her MD from the University of Toronto in 1991, and specialized in endocrinology and metabolism. She holds a PhD in clinical epidemiology. She is an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto in the Faculty of Medicine. Her clinical interest is in women's reproductive health, and particularly, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Her research interest in PCOS focuses on the role of insulin resistance and obesity on reproductive health outcomes. She is an enthusiastic teacher, has supervised many students, residents and fellows, and has been the recipient of research and teaching awards.
She has expertise in the CanMEDS Advocacy role. She has advocated for 13 years for effective evidence-based interventions for children and adults with developmental disabilities on a provincial and national level. She advocates for the creation of public policy that provides appropriate evidence-based services and support. She is teaching medical trainees about public health policy advocacy and has supervised several social justice initiatives with these students. At Women’s College Hospital, she has been recently appointed Chief of Staff. Her focus in this role will include the implementation of quality initiatives that improve patient safety and care.
Mary Lou Maher Mary Lou Maher holds a Fellow Chartered Accountant designation and is the chief financial officer and chief administration officer for KPMG in Canada, responsible for finance, administration, information technology, knowledge management, real estate, procurement and continuous improvement initiatives. Maher, who holds a Fellow Chartered Accountant designation, is deeply committed to her profession.
She is actively involved with the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Ontario and has held various roles: chair of its Audit Committee and a member of its executive committee and the bylaws committee. She was named a Trailblazer for Women CAs by CA Magazine in 2005, and was also awarded the honour of Top 100 Powerful Women in the professional category by the Women’s Executive Network in 2006 and 2010. She participates in the Women’s Network Mentoring Program, which matches young women executives with the Top 100 Women to share experiences and career ideas.
For more information on Mary Lou Maher please click here.
Jocelyn Palm Jocelyn Palm is the current President of the Association of Volunteers, Women’s College Hospital. The director and owner of Glen Bernard Camp, a resident summer camp, Palm is actively involved with youth leadership as well as community education surrounding the sustainability of the natural environment. For 15 years Jocelyn was the national Executive Director of the Lifesaving Society and continues her commitment to aquatic lifesaving at camp.
Closely involved with WCH since 1989, Palm has contributed to a number of projects, each designed to feature the importance of women’s health knowledge and education in the community. A team that included Palm coordinated the Women’s Health Matters Forum & Expo, an annual WCH public event for 12 years. Recently she had a role in strategic communications and continues those efforts at every opportunity.
In 2012 her accomplishments were recognized with appointment to the Order of Canada.
N. Jane Pepino A senior partner at Aird & Berlis LLP and the founder of the firm’s Municipal and Land Use Planning Group, Jane Pepino provides advice on planning, zoning and land development throughout Ontario. She regularly appears before decision-making bodies controlling land development, including local planning committees and council, conservation authorities, the Ontario Municipal Board and the courts.
As a volunteer, Pepino has served as a member of the Ontario Human Rights Commission, the Federal Council on the Status of Women, and as the founding chair of Metropolitan Toronto Action Committee on Violence Against Women and Children. She was appointed by the Minister of Health to create and chair the Ontario Women’s Health Council (1997–2007).
She joined the Women’s College Hospital Board in 1995, served as chair until 1998, and chaired the Women’s Health Committee of Sunnybrook and Women’s. She is an honourary life member of the Women’s College Hospital Board, and was appointed to chair of the board again in 2011. In 2000, she was appointed a member of the Order of Canada.
Sarah Qadeer Sarah Qadeer is General Counsel at The Home Depot Canada. She is a member of the Senior Leadership Team, helping to devise strategy and operational excellence for the organization in addition to her role leading legal and risk management oversight. She is the Corporate Secretary on the Board of Directors of The Home Depot Canada Foundation (a charitable foundation committed to helping end youth homelessness) and also sits on the Diversity and Inclusion Leadership Council. Prior to joining The Home Depot, Sarah held the position of Vice-president and Legal Counsel at BMO Nesbitt Burns and was a lawyer in the corporate and securities law group of one of Canada’s largest national law firms.
Sarah is widely recognized for her business and community leadership. In 2016, she was recognized as a WXN Canada’s Most Powerful Women: Top 100 Award Winner, an honour celebrating top female leaders in the country. Sarah has been recognized as one Canada's leading GC's in the GC Powerlist for Canada (2016), was a finalist for the 2016 Canadian General Counsel of the Year (Business Achievement), and was awarded the First Chair GC award in 2013. In addition to being on the board of Women’s College Hospital, Sarah sits on the Executive Committee of Legal Leaders for Diversity, and is also the Chair of the Retail Council of Canada’s General Counsel Committee.
An avid hiker, Sarah takes advantage of any opportunity to enjoy the great outdoors and is seeking to develop a passion for nature in her young daughter.
Sarah holds a civil law and common law degree from McGill University, is bilingual and was called to both the Quebec and Ontario bars. She also holds a bachelor of sciences degree in microbiology and immunology from McGill University.
Sheerin A. Sheikh Ms. Sheikh has served as treasurer of the Hospital, was a member of its Capital Redevelopment Committee and chaired the board’s Resources Committee, of which she is now a member. She also represents Women’s College Hospital, one of three signatories, on the Alternative Funding Plan Board of Management.
Sheerin Sheikh has extensive private and public sector experience in real estate assembly, planning and development; large, complex and strategic capital projects delivery; and financial and operational restructuring.
She is a long-time volunteer with public objectives organizations in areas of social justice and entitlement. With her focus on the not-for-profit sector currently, she is a director of the Toronto Lands Corporation and a member of its Nomination & Governance Committee; and is Chair of Inter Faith Homes Corporate Group, a leading Ontario social housing provider in south western Ontario.
Ms. Sheikh has an M.B.A. from the Schulich School of Business of York University.
Kirsten Thompson Kirsten Thompson is a partner in the law firm of McCarthy Tétrault, where she leads the firm's National Cybersecurity, Privacy and Data Management group. She has both an advisory and advocacy practice, with a focus on providing privacy, data security, information governance and e-discovery advice to clients in a wide variety of sectors.
She also holds the newly created role of Chief Data Strategist for the firm, a role in which she oversees McCarthy's own information governance and data analytics initiatives, and also provides strategic advice to clients on developing areas of regulatory compliance, security and multiple other disciplines which bring together data and business needs. She has over 15 years of experience assisting clients to realize the benefits of technology while mitigating business and legal risk.
Prior to her position at McCarthys, Kirsten worked in the health sector, in hospital-based research, regulatory and policy roles. During this time, she obtained her Master's degree in Health Law. In addition to joining the WCH Board of Directors, Kirsten is on the Board of the Canadian IT Law Association. She is active in her community, and has previously been a Director on the Board of Pride at Work Canada.
Benita M. Warmbold Benita is Senior Managing Director and Chief Financial Officer at the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board. Benita is responsible for the finance functions, including corporate and investment finance, treasury, performance, enterprise reporting, investment risk, tax and internal audit. The CPP Investment Board invests the funds not needed by the Canada Pension Plan to pay current benefits. The CPP Fund was $219.1 billion at March 31, 2014.
To December 2013, Benita held the role of Senior Vice-President and Chief Operations Officer. In that role, she was responsible for investment finance, treasury, performance, reporting, investment risk, operations, data and technology functions within the CPP Investment Board.
Prior to joining CPP Investment Board, Benita was Managing Director and Chief Financial Officer of Northwater Capital Management Inc. With over 30 years of finance experience, she previously held senior positions with Canada Development Investment Corporation and KPMG.
Benita is active on several boards, including Canada Development Investment Corporation (a federal crown corporation), Canadian Public Accountability Board, Toronto Financial Services Alliance and Women’s College Hospital. She is also Chair of the Queen’s School of Business Advisory Board (at Queen’s University) and also a member of the Audit and Risk Committee of Queen’s University.
Benita holds an Honours Bachelor of Commerce degree from Queen’s University. A Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Ontario and ICD.D, she has been recognized twice as one of “Canada’s Most Powerful Women – Top 100”. Benita has also been selected by the Canadian Board Diversity Council for its first-ever Diversity 50, which recognizes qualified, diverse candidates for board of director appointments.
Lynn Wilson Professor Lynn Wilson completed her undergraduate degree at McMaster University, and her medical degree and postgraduate training at the University of Toronto. She has been practicing as a comprehensive family physician since 1986.
Prior to being named Vice Dean, Partnerships, Prof. Wilson served as Chair of the Department of Family and Community Medicine (DFCM) at the University of Toronto. With over 1200 faculty members, it is the largest family medicine department in Canada. DFCM has thrived under Prof. Wilson's leadership, with expanded graduate programs and fellowship offerings, four new research chairs, and new programs such as the Family Medicine Longitudinal Experience, the Office of Education Scholarship and DFCM Open, an online platform for family doctors to share resources and information. DFCM has also experienced significant growth in its international activities, most notably through its array of professional development opportunities for primary care physicians from around the world.
Prof. Wilson has also played a leadership role through her work with some of the Faculty's key partners. From 2002 to 2007, she was a member of the Physician Services Committee for the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care where she helped to lead primary care renewal in the province of Ontario. Since 2011, Dr. Wilson has been the co-director of BRIDGES, a Ministry of Health funded project to support the design and implementation of innovative models of care that promote integration in the healthcare system. Her current global health work in the Department includes working with medical faculty at Addis Ababa University to implement a first-ever family medicine residency program in Ethiopia.
On January 1, 2016, Prof. Wilson began her term as the Vice Dean, Partnerships in Faculty of Medicine. In this capacity, she is responsible for the Faculty's ongoing relationships with nine fully affiliated hospitals and 18 community-affiliated hospitals and health facilities, as well as government, community organizations and international collaborators.
Prof. Wilson practices family medicine at the Women's College Hospital Family Health Team in Toronto. Her clinical interests include palliative care, addiction medicine, obstetrics and global health.